There are many types of museums in Indonesia and the world. The type of museum can be distinguished from the exclusive category. In this article will be discussed the types of museums & explanations.
Before discussing the type of museum, it will first be discussed about the meaning of museums. The understanding of museums etymologically comes from classical Greek, namely Muze which means the formation of 9 goddesses as a symbol of science and art. The museum of KBBI is a building that is used as a place for permanent exhibitions of objects that deserve generic attention, such as historical relics, art, & sciences; the site stores antiques. Based on the understanding of experts, the museum is:According to A.C. Parker, the museum is an institution that uses actively explaining humans and nature.According to Douglas A. Allan, a museum is a building that inside houses a number of combinations of objects used for pleasure & study research.According to Sri Soejatmi, the museum is a forum that has the task of preserving and passing on culture by collecting, owning, caring for, exhibiting, and communicating it to citizens.According to Moh. Amir Sutaarga, the museum is a permanent institution that provides services for the benefit of the community and its progress, not for profit, open to generics that research, maintain, exhibit, and communicate some human material evidence objects in their environment for education, study, and recreation.According to the International Council of Museums (ICOM), museums are non-profit forums that have a permanent nature to provide services to the community and its development that is open to the public and has the task of collecting, researching, preserving, communicating, and exhibiting the legacy of human history.According to the Advaced Dictionary, a museum is a building in which it exhibits objects as an overview of history, art, science, and much more.
Another building known to be related to using the history of the museum is part of a library complex built specifically for art and science. This is mainly philosophy and research on Alexandria the Ptolemy I Soter in 280 BC. The first museum built in Indonesia is the Radya Pustaka Museum. In addition, there is also the Gadjah Museum which is known to be a museum that has the most complete collection in Indonesia. Also read the history of the museum, the history of the Satria Mandala Museum, the history of the Vredeburg Museum, and the history of the Sonobudoyo Museum.
Museums originally began as a place to store collections belonging to individuals, families, or wealthy institutions. Museums usually store works of art and rare objects or formations of natural objects and archaeological artifacts. Also read the history of Radya Pustaka Museum, the history of the Youth Oath Museum, the History of the Sasmitaloka Museum, the history of fatahillah Museum, & the history of the Elephant Museum.
In general, the function of the museum is to store, secure, maintain, and utilize the museum collection in the form of cultural heritage objects. In particular, the function of the museum is divided into two, namely:Place of preservation
The museum’s functions as a preservation site include:Storage consisting of collecting objects as collections, numbering systems, collection recording, and collection alignment.Treatment consisting of activities to prevent and overcome collection damageSecurity consisting of protective activities to maintain collection and interference or damage of natural factors and human actions.Source of information
Museums serve as the origin of information for the people or research. Research is organized to develop national culture, science, and technology. In its presentation, the museum must pay attention to the aspects of preservation & security.
Museums themselves have a plurality of types, according to grand institutions and include poly categories, to mini institutions that only focus on a specific subject, person, or location. There is also a museum whose collection represents the world. In general, the collection covers the fields of art, history, science, and natural history. An in-depth discussion of the types of museums in depth is the following. The types of museums can be generically grouped from the level of the collection, the organizer, & collection.Based on the level of collectionLocal museums
A local museum is a type of museum that has a level of collection in the local or regional level only. The collection of objects is also limited to the heritage and culture that exists in the region only.Regional museums
A regional museum is a type of museum that has a limited level of collection and only in the scope of regional areas. In general, the collection comes from the regional area where the museum was established.National museum
National museum is a type of museum that has strata collections in accordance with national or international classes. This museum generally contains a lot of objects based on the region in a country. Also read the history of Surabaya Submarine Museum, the history of Ullen Sentalu Museum, the history of Kambang Putih Tuban Museum.
two. Based on his violationGovernment museum
This museum is organized and managed by the government both the local government and the central government.Particle museum
The museum is not organized by the government. This museum was built and organized by individuals or private, but still have to get it from the government.
3. By collectionPublic museums
A public museum is a museum whose collectibles are in the form of a collection of evidence of human materials and their environment related to using generic things. The collection of this museum can contain a variety of disciplines that do not only specialize in one branch.Specific museums
A specific museum is a museum whose collection only relates to using one branch of science, one branch of technology, and another. This museum does not have collections outside based on the branch of knowledge, art, and technology that is devoted. Read also the history of the West Kalimantan Museum, the history of the Makassar City Museum, and the history of the Yogyakarta Palace Museum.
In addition, the types of museums according to the International Council of Museums (ICOM) consist of:Art museum
Art museum (art museum) is a museum that manages to store and collect related objects using art.Archeology and history museum
Archeology and history museum is a museum containing archaeological objects and historical objects that store about human history and civilization.National museum
National museum or national museum is a museum that stores objects that come from a lot of regions according to the country where the museum stands.Natural history museum
Natural history museum or natural science museum is a museum that stores objects related to the civilization of natural science.Science and technology museum
Science and technology museum is a museum whose content is related to the development of science and technology.Specialized museum
Specialized museum or special museum is a museum devoted to one exclusive special object that may not be the same according to the previous five types of museums. Also read the discussion about museums in Amsterdam, the oldest museums in the world, museums in Bangkok, museums in Kuala Lumpur, and museums in Ubud.