tirto.id – Art is the skill of creating a quality work both audio and visual, such as dance, painting, friction, songs, and others.
According to the Great Dictionary of Indonesian (KBBI), art is the ability of logic to form something of high value. Thus art is a work of human beings who have beauty and can be enjoyed and felt by the human being.
Reported according to the Online Journal of Unpad.ac.id, Anthropology Subject Module 12th grade high school, according to William A Haviland art is a product of a type of human behavior that specifically uses delusions creatively to help us tell, understand, and enjoy life.
With the idea of complete art, aesthetic values that exist in human habits can be actualized. For example, we can see cultural theater performances for aesthetic satisfaction only.
S Graham Brade-Birks in the Concise Encyclopedia of General Knowledge, states that in a broad sense, art is the training of logic to make a work that delights the enlightenment of man.
This includes imaginative visual expressions according to objects, for example on sculptures, paintings, & drawings. But imagination also finds its expression in the art of music, drama, dance, poetry, & architecture.
Art can be divided into three fields, namely fine art consisting of painting, sculpture and carving art; literary art consisting according to poetry and prose; and performing arts consisting of dance, drama / theater, and musical arts.
In the second Anthropology subject book for the 12th grade of High School compiled by Puji Lestari, fine arts covers three fields, namely painting, sculpture and carving.
Painting is one of the parents according to fine art. Painting is a more complete development of images.
There are several genres of painting that we know are:
Paintings using this stream mostly resemble forms that are not rarely encountered in dreams. Painters try to ignore the shape as a whole and then cook each particular part based on the object to create a certain sensation that can be felt by humans without having to understand the original form.
At the beginning of the proliferation of studio painting, painters defined images as the reflection of light according to each part of the object. Each of the smallest parts will reflect different light, and this light will be captured by the eye and then interpreted by the brain as certain forms.
Painters of earlier times interpreted objects into a fusion of uninformed reflections of light. Therefore, the shape of a non-material must be made using lines, fields, or volumes, but the reflection of similar light that gathers and gives the impression of an object.
Therefore, in order to get a good painting, the painter must take into account the direction of the arrival of the beam, the type of light, and the reaction of the object pigment to the light. This makes painting activities at this time more into manual photography activities.
It is the most popular school in painting. This stream presents the shape of the object according to the actual phenomenon & many present natural themes.
It is a stream that tends to attempt abstraction of objects into geometric shapes to receive certain sensations. One of the popular figures of this school is Pablo Picasso.
It is the oldest tradition in the history of Indonesia’s newest painting. Painting with this stream seeks to evoke romantic and aesthetic memories on each object. Natural scenery is an object that is often taken as a background painting.
Romanticism was pioneered by painters in the Dutch colonial era and transmitted to indigenous painters for the purpose of gallery collections in colonial times. One of the famous figures of this genre is Raden Saleh.
It is a genre in painting that cooks every element of art in order to effectively inform the painter’s emotions. Similarity of shapes can still be present in paintings, but nir plays a crucial role.
It is a tendency in painting to try to imitate forms in the real world as closely as possible. At the beginning of the development of painting, realism was the primary goal to get beautiful paintings. But in line with the development of human knowledge, realism began to be abandoned and humans explored more elements of hue, composition, line, & illumination than elements of form, thus giving birth to abstraction (separation of elements of form based on an object in the painting).
Is to put aside the element of form according to painting. Abstraction means the act of avoiding impersonation of objects raw. Elements that are believed to be able to put the sensation of the existence of objects are strengthened to replace the element of form that is reduced in portion.
If we are on a trip, we often find there are statues in the middle of intersections, intersections, in front of meeting buildings, and also in museums.
The statues are capable of our hero figures, momentummomentum that has been experienced by the Indonesian nation, or symbols, desires and struggles, and programs proclaimed by the government.
Carving art is interpreted into a variety of ornamentals that are kruwikan, buledan, connecting, and is a form of latif painting.
Contrary to this understanding, the art of carving is actually the result of an image formed by humans in an upper part that is done in such a way with exclusive senses so that the surface whose origin is homogeneous becomes not homogeneous (kruwikan & buledan). Thus the main characteristic of an engraving is to create an upper part as a homogeneous infinity.
The term ‘literature’ has a written meaning. More broadly, literature can be interpreted as talking about various kinds of writings that are latif in shape and noble in content.
The beauty of the form of literary output that is then commonly claimed to be a literary work is seen based on poetry, prose lyrics, drama, and other forms of literary works, both belonging to ancient literature, transition periods, to the latest literature, even literature at this time in the latest period.
Judging in terms of form, literary works are something that can please, while when viewed according to content, literary works have use value for anyone who can appreciate them.
Literary works are not just read and lived as time fillers, but in them contain values that are meaningful to life.
The development of literary art can be seen from ancient times, namely the era before the invention of the stroke of the pen, the time people spread literary art through oral to verbal traditions and delivered from someone speaker to others in the form of stories or fairy tales (stories of deer that steal cucumber farmers), legends (stories of weeping stones).
Later in the age of characters, literary art has begun to be developed in the form of pen-writing strokes or literary works that at that time were written on lontar leaves.
The relics of this antique writing we can see in some museums such as Trowulan, and we can also see the stroke of an ancient pen in the Balinese museum that tells about the kingdoms in Bali.
These relics show us the results of literary art in hindu-Buddhist times.
Performing arts include dance, drama arts, & music arts.
According to Curt Sach in World History of The Dance, dance is rhythmic mobility. According to Corrie Hartong dance is a movement of the body that is given a shape & rhythm in the space.
In simple terms, dance is an expression of aesthetic and meaningful ideas or feelings that are realized through the medium of human body mobility arranged with exclusive principles. In the art of dance, the main element is motion, and the other most important element is rhythm.
The term drama origin based on greek is according to the term dramon which means deed or mobility. So, drama means the art of conveying human perspective through the actions that are staged.
The word/term theater refers to “performing arts”. In the art of theater the presence of the audience has a very crucial value. Cooperation between theater actors and the audience becomes the core / essence according to theater performances.
The term theater in Indonesia is usually interpreted as performing arts that focus on stories, chat, and the art of gait (acting). The art of theater is included in the art of multimedia because it uses more than one medium.
The art of theatre expresses its meaning through theatrical language (theatrical experience). The main purpose of theater art is experience & theatrical enjoyment.