Hermitage, the largest museum of art in the world
The Hermitage is the largest art collection in Russia and the world. The museum is located on the banks of the Neva River, Saint Petersburg, Russia. Hermitage’s art collections circulate in five primary buildings that are connected to each other. Hermitage art collection consists of art collections in the form of artifacts, paintings, sculptures, and other works of art according to antiquity to this time. Hermitage’s collections consist of Egyptian-based artworks, artifacts from ancient Greece, Baroque artworks from the Dutch golden age, Italian artworks based on renaissance times, works of art from Germany, and France, and works of art based on Russia.
The Hermitage began construction in 1764 and was only completed in 1766. At that time, Catherine II assigned Yuri Felten to build an additional building to the east of the Winter Palace. Currently the building built by Yuri Felten was known as the South Pavilion based on the Small Hermitage. At first the Hermitage consisted of only one building intended to be a collection of exclusive imperial art galleries. But at this time, the Hermitage consisted of several buildings including the former residence of the imperial family, namely the Winter Palace which is located in one complex. In 1767, French architect Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe created an additional building that is now known as the North Pavilion based on the Small Hermitage. The building known as Small Hermitage was built using a neoclassical style. Furthermore, in 1771, Catherine II returned to assign Yuri Felten to create an additional building that was only completed in 1787. The building is currently known as the Large Hermitage. Hermitage, the largest museum of art in the world
The Hermitage collection began when Catherine II purchased an art collection from a German art collector named Johann Ernst Gotzkowksy. Gotzkowsky sold approximately 225 paintings that he owned consisting of paintings from Flemish and Dutch. Some of the collection are artworks from Rembradnt van Rijn, Peter Paul Rubens, Jacob Jordaens, Anthony van Dyck, Paolo Veronese, Frans Hals, Holbein, Raphael, and many more poly.
The Hermitage collection then increased when Catherine II purchased approximately 600 art collections based on Brühl in 1769. In 1772, Catherine II bought some of Crozat’s collections. In 1779, Catherine II bought a collection based on Robert Walpole and then bought a collection based on Count Baldwin in 1781. Yekaterina II’s art collection continued to grow until it reached 4000 collections of paintings, 38000 books, and other collections that filled this gallery. Catherine II successfully gained a reputation as an art collector in Europe and put the view for European countries that Russia under his leadership was a developed nation and highly valued works of art. The Hermitage collection at that time was very large and became the fault of a museum that had dignity in Europe.
The Hermitage collection then increased using several artifacts from the Greek and Sychthian civilizations found by the Russian archaeologist. In 1838, Tsar Nicholas I ordered the German architect Leo von Klenze to form a building devoted to public exhibitions. On February 5, 1852, the Hermitage was officially opened to the public. In 1861, the Hermitage collection increased using several collections based on the Giampietro Campana. These collections consist of 500 urns, 200 bronze sculptures and several marble-based sculptures.
After the collapse of the Russian Empire in the October Revolution of 1917, the Soviet government decided that the former royal residence (Winter Palace) and surrounding buildings as the Hermitage Museum. The Hermitage collection also increased with the policy of nationalization of works of art that still exist in several palaces and residences of other imperial families. Collections of nationalized output were distributed to several museums in the Soviet Union, including the Hermitage.
Alba Madonna, painting by Raphael, collection of the Hermitage Museum sold by the Soviet Government
In 1928, the Soviet government planned to sell some of the collection’s artworks based on the Hermitage. At that time the Government of the Soviet Union needed funds to finance the industrialization of Russia in the Five-Year Economic Plan. Between 1930 and 1934, approximately two thousand hermitage collection artworks were sold at several auctions abroad. Some of the artworks sold, among others, are large works based on Raphael, Titian, Boticelli, Rembrandt, and van Dyck. Some of them are still works of snei which is now a collection of the National Gallery of Art in Washington D.C. During the Second World War, hermitage art collections were evacuated and the museum was closed for ad interim. Buildings according to hermitage were also affected by damage during the Siege of Leningrad. In November 1945 after the Second World War ended, the Hermitage Museum was opened to a generic. In 1981, menshikov palace as the new building of the Hermitage featuring Russian works of art.
One of the rooms at the Hermitage Museum
Currently, the Hermitage collection has reached three million works of art consisting of paintings, sculptures, artifacts, funds for various jewelry, and other collections. Hermitage is the museum with the largest collection of artworks in the world. The Hermitage museum complex has an area of approximately seven hectares consisting of 5 main buildings and a field called Winter Palace Square. There are approximately 365 rooms in the Hermitage. In 2017, it is estimated that up to 4,200,000 domestic and international tourists arrived to visit hermitage.