Modernism developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and was strongly influenced by modern industry, the growth of cities, and the atrocities of the First World War. Modern artists rejected realism, instead seeking to re-create the past in new forms. Contributors to the Modernist movement felt that traditional artistic forms were outdated in light of the new, industrialized world. They rejected the 19th century notion of Romanticism (which focused on change as a smooth, evolutionary process) for more radical, revolutionary, and progressive change. Many other movements comprised Modernism, including Cubism, Dada, and Futurism, and the term “avant-garde” was applied to art for the first time as a result.  Post World War I, the movement made its way into popular culture, gaining momentum and influencing all forms of art—from painting and sculpture, to writing and the ballet.