A successor to the Cercle et Carré movement, Abstraction-Création was formed in Paris in February 1931. Since avant-garde art was outlawed in Nazi Germany and Stalinist Russia, many artists fled to Paris in the 1930s, making the city the hub of abstraction. The leaders behind Abstraction-Création, including Auguste Herbin, Jean Hélion, and Georges Vantongerloo, emphasized geometric abstraction over lyrical or expressive. Despite this, the movement was open to all types of abstraction. Its lack of boundaries led to the attraction of more than four hundred artists, including Jean Arp, Wassily Kandinsky and Piet Mondrian, from various movements such as Constructivism, Neo-plasticism, and Surrealism. The group held various exhibitions and published annually Abstraction Creation: art non-figuratif from 1932-36, detailing their achievements and defining their principles. Though Abstraction-Création dwindled in the later 1930s, its motives were revived post-World War II with the Salon des Réalitiés Nouvelles.