Joaquín Torres-García 

Born 1874, Montevideo, Uruguay 

Died 1949, Montevideo, Uruguay

 

June 1891   Moves with his family to Catalonia, Spain.  In the town of Mataró, Torres-García studies drawing at the Escuela municipal de artes y oficios de Mataró under the guidance of Josep Vinardell.  His first paintings include oil landscapes and still lifes.

1892   Moves with his family to Barcelona; attends the Academia de bellas artes, then Academia Baixas.  Becomes a regular visitor of the artist café Els Quatre Gats, also frequented by Pablo Picasso.

1903-1907   Collaborates with Antoni Gaudí, an architect he meets at El Quatre Gats, on the Templo Expiatorio de la Sagrada Familia and the windows of the Palma de Mallorca Cathedral.

1918   Starts to design wood toys, a precursor to his Constructivist art creations.

1920   Moves to New York.

1922   Begins manufacturing his toy creations.  Returns to Europe.

1926   Settles in Paris.

1928   After being rejected from the Salon d’automne, Torres-García experiments with Constructivism.

1929   Creates his first truly Constructivist works, balancing elements of the natural and plastic, and referencing cultures of South America.

Late 1929   Meets Piet Mondrian.  Together with Michel Seuphor, the three found the movement Cercle et Carré.

1930   The group goes public with a journal and group exhibition with forty-six artists at Galerie 23 in Paris.  The focus of these artists is to provide an alternative to the domineering Surrealist movement.  Because of disagreements with Seuphor, Torres-García leaves the group in the same year.

1933   One-man show at the Museo de Arte Moderno, Madrid.

1934   Returns to Uruguay after teaching and lecturing in Madrid.  He founds the Asociación de Arte Constructivo (Association of Constructivist Art) and publishes the journal Circulo y Cuadrado, introducing Cubism, Neoplasticism, and Constructivism to his home country.

1935   Develops many Latin American followers as a result of his text Escuela del sur, where he places Latin American art above European art, and calls for artists to do the same.

1955   Posthumous one-man show at Musée National d’art Moderne, Paris.

1959   Exhibitions at the São Paulo Biennial.

1980   Solo exhibition at Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela.

1991   Exhibitions at the São Paulo Biennial.

1997   Solo exhibition at Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela.